Abductor Digiti Minimi (Hand & Foot)

Abductor digiti minimi is the small muscle found in both hands and feet. ADM is located along the skin’s outer surface of the hand and foot, on the same side as the pinky finger and the little toe exist. It is responsible for abduction, which can be described as pulling the smallest finger and toes away from the other digits of the hand or foot. 

Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM) of Hand:

A small peculiar muscle of the hand is the ADM. The hand muscle is called the abductor digit minimi manus.

ADM Manus: Origin and Insertion:

Pisiform bone is the source from where the ADM arise. The pisohamate and pisometacarpal ligaments connect the pisiform bone to the other two bones; the hamate bone and the metacarpal bone. Some fibers also occur from the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon attached to the pisiform bone. 

ADM Manus: Blood supply and Innervation

The palmar of the ulnar artery supplies blood to the abductor digit minimi and superficial palmar arch of the ulnar side. In addition, the palm veins drain venous blood into the ulnares (deep arm veins). The ulnar nerve supplied the ADM, derived from the root values C8 and T1.

ADM Manus: Functions

The ADM is primarily responsible for abducting and separating the fourth finger from the fifth finger, located at the metacarpophalangeal joint. This muscle also contributes to the extension of the fifth finger at the interphalangeal joint. Moreover, it plays a significant role in grasping something tightly, such as basketball. 

ADM Manus Pain: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment:

An abductor digiti minimi muscle is located on the small finger side of the hand. A trigger point in the muscle causes pain outside the hand, radiating to the little finger.

ADM Manus Pain Symptoms:

Following are the symptoms of abductor digit minimi injury:

  • There is pain on the back and side of the hand just below the small finger.
  • As the pain extends into the lower half of the small finger, it becomes pretty painful.

ADM Manus Pain Causes: ADM pain has many causes. Some of them are:

  • Activities that require repetitions of moving the little finger away from the fingers, such as typing, can cause pain in abductor digiti minimi.
  • Playing musical instruments requires the little finger to be held away from the other fingers, such as the violin, cello, guitar, and piano.
  • Opening jar lids can cause pain in the arms, wrist, and hand.

ADM Manus Pain Treatment:

Following treatment options are available for abductor digit minimi pain. Some are mentioned below:

    • Compression: It helps relieve pain in your hands caused by muscle injury or arthritis.
    • Massage balls: It is an easy and effective way to treat muscle pain. People must roll their hands and feet daily to increase muscle flexibility and catch trigger points early.
  • Palpation: Muscle trigger points can be easily treated by palpating and examining the outside of the hand, which will help to find any sore and tender spots. Apply pressure to the tender area for 10 seconds. Start massaging the finger with the index finger and thumb of the opposite hand, gently pulling the finger upwards. 

Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM) of Foot: 

The abductor digiti minimi muscle is located along the foot’s lateral (outer) border and in touch with the lateral plantar nerve, vein, and artery. The foot muscle is called abductor digit minimi pedis.

ADM Pedis: Origin & Insertion

ADM originate from medial and lateral processes of the calcaneal tuberosity, and plantar aponeurosis. The lateral part of the foot exudes a tendon that inserts between the proximal phalanx infrastructure of the fifth metatarsal and the bottom of the fifth digit. On the fifth metatarsal, the muscle’s insertion comes from the lateral process of the calcaneal tuberosity. 

ADM Pedis: Blood supply & Innervation

The lateral plantar artery, plantar metatarsal artery, and plantar digital artery supply the blood to the 5th finger or digit. The lateral plantar nerve (S1, S3) innervates the abductor digiti minimi.

ADM Pedis: Functions: The plantar muscle is the first layer of the foot that is responsible for controlling the movement of a metatarsophalangeal joint between the little toe base and the head of the fifth metatarsal bone. It is also responsible for the flexibility and movement of the little toe.

While walking, running, and jumping, it maintains the concavity of the foot by supporting the lateral longitudinal arch. 

ADM Pedis Pain: Symptoms, causes, and Treatment:

Due to its exposed location, the Abductor Digiti Minimi Foot Muscle is susceptible to getting strained or injured when a person engages in some physical activity standing straight.

ADM Pedis: Symptoms

Several symptoms may indicate a strained abductor digiti minimi of the foot, including:

  • The outer part of the heel is painful.
  • The pain experienced in the outer ankle is often similar to that experienced with a sprained ankle.
  • This pain also occurs at rest as well as moving.

ADM Pedis Pain: Causes

The following activities can cause Abductor Digiti Minimi of the Foot Strain:

  • Walking or running on uneven surfaces.
  • Wearing high heels.
  • Wearing shoes that are too small and do not fit properly.

ADM Pedis Pain: Treatment

The following are some treatments that can help relieve strained Abductor Digiti Minimi of the Foot Muscle:

    • Rest: Treatment of strained Abductor Digiti Minimi of the Foot Muscle should always begin with rest. Do not stretch your foot muscles for the first few days.
    • Cold therapy: Gels and cold packs are available over the counter and in the market to treat a sprained abductor digiti minimi of the foot. Gels are usually applied immediately after an injury or strain to cool the area and prevent swelling.
    • Warm therapy: Strained ADM of the Foot Muscle can also be treated with warm treatment. It provides sufficient heat to the injury without burning it and works exceptionally well to relieve pain and stiffness.
  • Foot Wraps: The supports or Wraps are designed to relax the strained ADM of the foot muscle. They cover the ankle and foot completely. Neoprene is used to make these wraps, which provide warmth and are pretty comfortable. Doctors highly recommend these wraps or support to athletes prone to spraining the Abductor Digiti Minimi Muscle or other foot muscles.

References:

  • https://www.wise-geek.com/what-is-the-abductor-digiti-minimi.htm
  • https://thewellnessdigest.com/abductor-digiti-minimi-hand-muscle/
  • https://www.epainassist.com/sports-injuries/foot-and-heel-injuries/strained-abductor-digiti-minimi-muscle-of-the-foot
  • https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/abductor-digiti-minimi-muscle-of-hand
  • http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/meded/grossanatomy/dissector/mml/abdh.htm

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